Willingness to pay for HPV vaccine among female health care workers in a Chinese nationwide survey.BMC Health Serv Res. 2022 Nov 05; 22(1):1324.BH
Payment methods for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine could substantially influence vaccination behavior. In China, HPV vaccination uptake remains currently low. This study aims to determine willingness to pay (WTP) for HPV vaccines among Chinese female health care workers under different payment scenarios.
This is a nationwide online survey recruiting female health care workers aged 18-45 years from 31 provinces throughout China. We collected the respondents' vaccination status of HPV vaccines and their sociodemographics. Two WTPs were defined and estimated in the study. A general WTP for HPV vaccination was determined using the contingent valuation method with double dichotomous choice bidding. A WTP out-of-pocket was estimated for each HPV vaccine under two scenarios, including partial coverage by governmental subsidy or partial incorporation in basic medical insurance. Accordingly, a multivariable linear regression model was employed to determine the association between sociodemographis and general WTP. Then the maximum WTP out-of-pocket was compared among the respondents' attitude shift towards HPV vaccination, payment scenarios, and levels of vaccine attributes, using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test.
A total of 15,969 respondents were included in the study. The median general WTP was 2000 CNY (interquartile range, 1000-3200 CNY), positively associated with younger age, unmarried status, higher monthly income, fewer children, more positive vaccination behavior, working in tertiary hospital, higher local GDP and HDI (each P < 0.05). Moreover, the median WTP out-of-pocket was 1250 CNY (540-2000 CNY). It was significantly higher for vaccines partly covered by governmental subsidy (median, 1250 CNY; interquartile range, 560-2000 CNY), imported vaccines (1260 CNY; 630-1960 CNY), and 9-valent vaccines (1400 CNY; 750-2240 CNY) (each P < 0.001). Additionally, majority of respondents did not change their attitude towards HPV vaccination between two payment scenarios; those remaining with more expensive HPV vaccines (51.1%) had higher WTP out-of-pocket (1400 CNY; 560-2250 CNY) than those with cheaper vaccines (39.0%) (1120 CNY; 490-1960 CNY) (P < 0.001).
Chinese female health care workers have high WTP for HPV vaccines. A direct public funding for HPV vaccination is more preferable. Our findings may facilitate the adjustment of HPV vaccination strategy and payment mechanism in China.