The Effects of Pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum) from Different Production Areas on the Volatile Flavor Compounds of Fried Pepper Oils Based on HS-SPME-GC-MS and Multivariate Statistical Method.Molecules. 2022 Nov 11; 27(22)M
Fried pepper oil retains the overall flavor outline of pepper, and its unique rich and spicy flavor is deeply loved by consumers. In order to study the effect of different production areas of pepper on the flavor compounds of fried pepper oil, taking dried pepper from seven different production areas as raw materials, and taking rapeseed oil as a carrier oil as well as a constant frying temperature to prepare pepper oil, the present study analyzed the volatile flavor components of pepper oil qualitatively and quantitatively by employing headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The principal component analysis (PCA) method was used to construct the correlation analysis model of volatile flavor substances among different samples of pepper oil. Applying the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), the main volatile substances causing the flavor differences of pepper oil from different production areas were identified. The results showed that a total of 81 chemical components were identified, including 15 alcohols, 10 aldehydes, 5 ketones, 34 hydrocarbons, 11 esters, 6 acids, and others. Terpinen-4-ol, linalool, 2,4-decadienal, trans-2-heptenal, sabinene, linalyl acetate, bornyl acetate, myrcene, 1-caryophyllene, trans-α-ocimene, and limonene were selected as the main substances leading to the flavor differences among the pepper oil samples. These 11 chemical components played a decisive role in the construction of the overall aroma of the pepper oil. Using a descriptive sensory analysis, it was concluded that pepper oil from different production areas holds different aroma intensities. Compared with the other six samples, S4 Hanyuan Pepper Oil (HYPO) shows a relatively strong trend toward a spicy fragrance, fresh grassy fragrance, floral and fruity fragrance, fresh sweet fragrance, and fatty aroma.