[A systematic analysis of neurobiological roles of lithium].Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2022; 122(11):17-23.ZN
Lithium salts have been the mainstay of treatment for bipolar disorder for more than 50 years, since the FDA approved the treatment in 1970. Molecular mechanisms of lithium's action include inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta and inositol monophosphatase, resulting in induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, antiapoptotic proteins, deprivation of calcium-induced apoptosis. Recent findings suggest autophagy regulation as a possible mechanism of lithium neuroprotective action. Moreover, lithium treatment has been reported to decrease accumulation of various pathological proteins including phosphorylated tau and amyloid-B. Also, telomeres length and telomerase activity are suggested to be upregulated by lithium. Clinical applications of lithium treatment include various neurodegenerative diseases, primarily Alzheimer disease, with increasing importance given to the use of lithium microdoses. Chemoreactome screening is used to find more safe and effective lithium compounds.