Monkeypox: A Mini-Review on the Globally Emerging Orthopoxvirus.Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 11 25; 19(23)IJ
Monkeypox is a zoonotic infectious disease belonging to the orthopoxvirus family that has predominantly occurred in West and Central Africa since it was initially discovered in 1958. In May 2022, a global outbreak of monkeypox began to occur on an international scale, with case numbers still rising as this review is being written. This mini review sought to analyze the existing literature on monkeypox published from 2017 onward to provide epidemiological context to current outbreaks. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were used to gather both peer-reviewed and grey literature on the routes of transmission, case definitions, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, management, prevention, vaccination, and epidemiology of monkeypox. Epidemiological studies indicate that the age of onset of monkeypox has increased over time. Antivirals, such as Tecovirimat and Brincidofovir, are recommended to manage confirmed cases of monkeypox. Although mass vaccination is not currently recommended, the smallpox vaccine can be used as a preventative measure for at-risk groups, such as men who have sex with men and frontline healthcare workers. Further peer-reviewed research addressing animal reservoirs and sexual transmission dynamics is needed.