Genetic dissection of fatty acid components in the Chinese peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) mini-core collection under multi-environments.PLoS One. 2022; 17(12):e0279650.Plos
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important source of edible oil and protein for human nutrition. The quality of peanut seed oil is mainly determined by the composition of fatty acids, especially the contents of oleic acid and linoleic acid. Improving the composition of fatty acids in the seed oil is one of the main objectives for peanut breeding globally. To uncover the genetic basis of fatty acids and broaden the genetic variation in future peanut breeding programs, this study used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify loci associated with target traits and developed diagnostic marker. The contents of eight fatty acid components of the Chinese peanut mini-core collection were measured under four environments. Using the phenotypic information and over one hundred thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), GWAS were conducted to investigate the genetics basis of fatty acids under multi-environments. Overall, 75 SNPs were identified significant trait associations with fatty acid components. Nineteen associations were repeatedly identified in multiple environments, and 13 loci were co-associated with two or three traits. Three stable major associated loci were identified, including two loci for oleic acid and linoleic acid on chromosome A09 [mean phenotypic variation explained (PVE): 38.5%, 10.35%] and one for stearic acid on B06 (mean PVE: 23%). According to functional annotations, 21 putative candidate genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis were found underlying the three associations. The allelic effect of SNP A09-114690064 showed that the base variation was highly correlated with the phenotypic variation of oleic acid and linoleic acid contents, and a cost-effective Kompetitive allele-Specific PCR (KASP) diagnostic marker was developed. Furthermore, the SNP A09-114690064 was found to change the cis-element CAAT (-) in the promoter of ahFAD2A to YACT (+), leading dozens of times higher expression level. The enhancer-like activity of ahFAD2A promoter was identified that was valuable for enriching the regulation mechanism of ahFAD2A. This study improved our understanding on the genetic architecture of fatty acid components in peanut, and the new effective diagnostic marker would be useful for marker-assisted selection of high-oleic peanut breeding.