A chromosome-scale genome assembly of Dasypyrum villosum provides insights into its application as a broad-spectrum disease resistance resource for wheat improvement.Mol Plant. 2023 02 06; 16(2):432-451.MP
Dasypyrum villosum is one of the most valuable gene resources in wheat improvement, especially for disease resistance. The mining of favorable genes from D. villosum is frustrated by the lack of a whole genome sequence. In this study, we generated a doubled-haploid line, 91C43DH, using microspore culture and obtained a 4.05-GB high-quality, chromosome-scale genome assembly for D. villosum. The assembly contains39 727 high-confidence genes, and 85.31% of the sequences are repetitive. Two reciprocal translocation events were detected, and 7VS-4VL is a unique translocation in D. villosum. The prolamin seed storage protein-coding genes were found to be duplicated; in particular, the genes encoding low-molecular-weight glutenin at the Glu-V3 locus were significantly expanded. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis indicated that, after Blumeria graminearum f.sp tritici (Bgt) inoculation, there were more upregulated genes involved in the pattern-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity defense pathways in D. villosum than in Triticum urartu. MNase hypersensitive sequencing (MH-seq) identified two Bgt-inducible MH sites (MHSs), one in the promoter and one in the 3' terminal region of the powdery mildew resistance (Pm) gene NLR1-V. Each site had two subpeaks and they were termed MHS1 (MHS1.1/1.2) and MHS2 (MHS2.1/2.2). Bgt-inducible MHS2.2 was uniquely present in D. villosum, and MHS1.1 was more inducible in D. villosum than in wheat, suggesting that MHSs may be critical for regulation of NLR1-V expression and plant defense. In summary, this study provides a valuable genome resource for functional genomics studies and wheat-D. villosum introgression breeding. The identified regulatory mechanisms may also be exploited to develop new strategies for enhancing Pm resistance by optimizing gene expression in wheat.