Metabolomic Profile of Volatile Organic Compounds from Leaves of Cashew Clones by HS-SPME/GC-MS for the Identification of Candidates for Anthracnose Resistance Markers.J Chem Ecol. 2023 Feb; 49(1-2):87-102.JC
Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides affects the leaves, inflorescences, nuts, and peduncles of cashew trees (Anacardium occidentale). The use of genetically improved plants and the insertion of dwarf cashew clones that are more resistant to phytopathogens are strategies to minimize the impact of anthracnose on cashew production. However, resistance mechanisms related to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites remain unknown. Thus, this study promoted the investigation of the profile of volatile organic compounds of resistant cashew clone leaves ('CCP 76', 'BRS 226' and 'BRS 189') and susceptible ('BRS 265') to C. gloeosporioides, in the periods of non-infection and infection of the pathogen in the field (July-December 2019 - Brazil). Seventy-eight compounds were provisionally identified. Chemometric analyses, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Discriminating Partial Least Squares Analysis (PLS-DA), Discriminating Analysis of Orthogonal Partial Least Squares (OPLS-DA), and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), separated the samples into different groups, highlighting hexanal, (E)-hex-2-enal, (Z)-hex-2-en-1-ol, (E)-hex-3-en-1-ol, in addition to α-pinene, α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, β-pinene, and δ-3-carene, in the samples of the resistant clones in comparison to the susceptible clone. According to the literature, these metabolites have antimicrobial activity and are therefore chemical marker candidates for resistance to C. gloeosporioides in cashew trees.