Flaxseed supplementation significantly reduces hemoglobin A1c in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis.Nutr Res. 2023 02; 110:23-32.NR
Flaxseed is a functional food because of its high content of alpha-linolenic acid, lignans, and dietary fiber. We hypothesized that flaxseed supplementation would improve cardiometabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, clinical trials have shown conflicting results. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine the impact of flaxseed supplementation in patients with T2DM. Randomized controlled trials were systematically searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Embase until 25 March 2022. A total of 13 studies were included, and the results showed that flaxseed supplementation significantly reduced hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in participants with T2DM compared with the control group. In contrast, it had no effects on body weight, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, and lipid parameters. In the subgroup analyses, FBG was significantly reduced with supplementation of flaxseed in participants with baseline FBG ≥8.0 mmol/L or baseline HbA1c ≥7.0%. And a significant decrease in HbA1c in participants with baseline HbA1c ≥7.0% after flaxseed supplementation. In addition, subgroup analyses indicated that whole flaxseed supplementation significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reduced total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in participants with T2DM. In conclusion, flaxseed supplementation significantly reduced HbA1c in participants with T2DM, especially those with poorly controlled blood sugar levels. However, larger scale studies with better designs are needed to confirm insignificant and/or ambiguous findings.