[Arthrospira platensis phycocyanins: a perspective for use in foods for special dietary uses (brief review)].Vopr Pitan. 2022; 91(6):30-36.VP
Biomass of Arthrospira platensis has a long history of consumption as a source of protein, a number of micronutrients and minor biologically active compounds. Specific organoleptic properties of Arthrospira platensis biomass (pronounced bitter taste) limit its use as a source of phycocyanins. The developed modern methods of phycocyanin extraction from A. platensis biomass make it possible to obtain concentrates with improved sensory characteristics destined for the inclusion in foods for special dietary uses. The aim of this brief review was to analyze the results of the studies on the assessment of the biological activity of phycocyanin extracted from the Arthrospira platensis biomass, substantiating the prospects of using their concentrates for inclusion in foods for various dietary purposes. Material and methods. The PubMed Web Database, including MEDLINE article database, covering about 75% of the world's medical publications, was used for the main search for the literature. In addition, Scopus and Web of Science databases were used. Search depth - 15 years. Search keywords: Arthrospira platensis, phycocyanins, safety, antioxidant activity, immunomodulatory properties. Results and discussion. C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin are complexes of proteins with the pigment phycocyanobilin, their total content is about 50% of the content of all proteins in the A. platensis biomass. A significant number of toxicological studies indicate that there are no risks to human health when using phycocyanin-containing extracts of A. platensis. Evidence of the antioxidant effect of phycocyanins extracted from A. platensis biomass, their anti-inflammatory activity, immunomodulatory properties, was obtained experimentally in vitro and in vivo, as well as in clinical studies. Conclusion. Toxicological studies and experimental in vivo tests have shown the safe and effective use of Arthrospira platensis biomass extracts with a high content of phycocyanins as an additional means of dietary prevention and diet therapy. These data indicate the prospects for conducting additional studies on the possibility of including phycocyanin concentrates in specialized foods for various purposes.