Co-application of combined amendment (limestone and sepiolite) and Si fertilizer reduces rice Cd uptake and transport through Cd immobilization and Si-Cd antagonism.Chemosphere. 2023 Mar; 316:137859.C
Limestone and sepiolite combined amendment (LS) and silicon (Si) fertilizers are commonly applied for the remediation of Cd-polluted paddy soil. However, it is difficult to further decrease cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice grains by the individual application of LS or Si fertilizer to heavily Cd-polluted paddy fields. Two seasons of continuous field experiments were conducted in heavily Cd-polluted soil to study how the co-application of LS and Si fertilizer (namely soil-applied Si and foliar-sprayed Si) influences Cd and Si bioavailability in soil and Cd uptake and transport in rice. The results indicated that LS co-applied with soil-applied Si fertilizer treatments can enhance pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and available Si content in soil by 0.56-1.26 units, 19.3%-57.2%, and 14.7%-58.9% (p < 0.05), respectively, and reduce the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) extractable Cd content in soil by 26.5%-49.8% (p < 0.05) relative to the control. Furthermore, the co-application of LS and soil and foliar-sprayed Si fertilizer treatments reduced the Cd content in brown rice by 18.8%-70.6% (p < 0.05) compared with the control. Particularly, the brown rice Cd content under the co-application treatment (4500 kg/ha of soil applied LS, 90 kg/ha of Si fertilizer, and 0.4 g/L of foliar-sprayed Si fertilizer) was below 0.20 mg/kg in both seasons. Meanwhile, the Si content in rice was considerably enhanced by LS co-applied with Si fertilizer and negatively (p < 0.05) correlated with the rice Cd content. Therefore, the reduction of Cd bioavailability in soil and the antagonistic effect between Cd and Si in rice might be the key factors regulating Cd accumulation in rice via the co-application of LS and Si fertilizer.