Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower probability of prodromal Parkinson's disease and risk for Parkinson's disease/dementia with Lewy bodies: A longitudinal study.Eur J Neurol. 2023 04; 30(4):934-942.EJ
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Lifestyle factors have been implicated in the long-lasting neurodegenerative process in prodromal Parkinson's disease (pPD). The aim was to investigate the associations between adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MeDi) and longitudinal changes of pPD probability and the development of Parkinson's disease (PD) or pPD in a Mediterranean older population.
Data from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet cohort (community-dwelling individuals, aged ≥ 65 years) were used. A detailed food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate dietary intake and calculate MeDi adherence score, ranging from 0 to 55, with higher scores indicating higher adherence. The probability of pPD was calculated according to the updated Movement Disorder Society research criteria.
In all, 1047 non-PD/dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) participants were followed for 3 ± 1 years. MeDi adherence was associated with lower increase in pPD probability over time (b = -0.003, 95% confidence interval -0.006 to -0.001, p = 0.010). Forty-nine participants had incident possible/probable pPD (i.e., pPD probability ≥ 30%). Compared to the participants in the lowest quartile of MeDi adherence, those in the higher quartiles had an approximately 60%-70% lower risk for possible/probable pPD (p for trend 0.003). MeDi-pPD associations were driven by both motor and non-motor pPD markers and not from risk markers. Also, 21 participants were diagnosed with PD/DLB at follow-up. For each unit increase in the MeDi score, there was a 9%-10% lower risk for PD/DLB (hazard ratio 0.906 [95% confidence interval 0.823-0.997], p = 0.044).
Mediterranean diet adherence is associated with lower increase in pPD probability over time and lower possible/probable pPD and PD/DLB incidence in older Mediterranean people. More studies are needed to confirm our results in other populations.