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Hormonal contraception: benefits versus risks.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1987 Oct; 157(4 Pt 2):1023-8.AJ

Abstract

Epidemiologic studies, chiefly in English and U.S. populations, have generated concern regarding cardiovascular hazards associated with the use of oral contraceptives (OCs). A detailed analysis of these data suggests, however, that such studies have serious methodologic flaws. For example, the clinical diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis may be incorrect up to 50% of the time, rendering statistical analysis meaningless. The known cardiovascular risks of cigarette smoking may be amplified by OC use, but nonsmokers probably do not have an increased risk. Further, a number of studies in developing-world countries do not yield evidence of increased cardiovascular risks of OC use. Abnormal levels of serum lipids appear to affect cardiovascular (that is, myocardial infarction) risks in Western populations. Whether normalization of these levels improves the outlook is not entirely certain. The hormonal components of OCs are known to affect serum lipids, raising concern about possible long-term consequences. Newer low-dose OC formulations (such as triphasics) do not cause changes in serum lipids and therefore eliminate this putative risk.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

3674179

Citation

Goldzieher, J W.. "Hormonal Contraception: Benefits Versus Risks." American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 157, no. 4 Pt 2, 1987, pp. 1023-8.
Goldzieher JW. Hormonal contraception: benefits versus risks. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1987;157(4 Pt 2):1023-8.
Goldzieher, J. W. (1987). Hormonal contraception: benefits versus risks. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 157(4 Pt 2), 1023-8.
Goldzieher JW. Hormonal Contraception: Benefits Versus Risks. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1987;157(4 Pt 2):1023-8. PubMed PMID: 3674179.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Hormonal contraception: benefits versus risks. A1 - Goldzieher,J W, PY - 1987/10/1/pubmed PY - 1987/10/1/medline PY - 1987/10/1/entrez KW - Americas KW - Behavior KW - Biology KW - Breast Cancer KW - Cancer KW - Cardiovascular Effects KW - Cervical Cancer KW - Contraception--side effects KW - Contraceptive Agents, Female--side effects KW - Contraceptive Agents--side effects KW - Contraceptive Methods--side effects KW - Critique KW - Developed Countries KW - Developing Countries KW - Diseases KW - Endometrial Cancer KW - England KW - Epidemiologic Methods KW - Europe KW - Family Planning KW - Heart Diseases KW - Lipid Metabolic Effects KW - Lipids KW - Literature Review KW - Myocardial Infarction KW - Neoplasms KW - North America KW - Northern America KW - Northern Europe KW - Oral Contraceptives, Combined--side effects KW - Oral Contraceptives, Phasic--side effects KW - Oral Contraceptives--side effects KW - Ovarian Cancer KW - Physiology KW - Reproductive Control Agents--side effects KW - Research Methodology KW - Smoking KW - United Kingdom KW - United States SP - 1023 EP - 8 JF - American journal of obstetrics and gynecology JO - Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. VL - 157 IS - 4 Pt 2 N2 - Epidemiologic studies, chiefly in English and U.S. populations, have generated concern regarding cardiovascular hazards associated with the use of oral contraceptives (OCs). A detailed analysis of these data suggests, however, that such studies have serious methodologic flaws. For example, the clinical diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis may be incorrect up to 50% of the time, rendering statistical analysis meaningless. The known cardiovascular risks of cigarette smoking may be amplified by OC use, but nonsmokers probably do not have an increased risk. Further, a number of studies in developing-world countries do not yield evidence of increased cardiovascular risks of OC use. Abnormal levels of serum lipids appear to affect cardiovascular (that is, myocardial infarction) risks in Western populations. Whether normalization of these levels improves the outlook is not entirely certain. The hormonal components of OCs are known to affect serum lipids, raising concern about possible long-term consequences. Newer low-dose OC formulations (such as triphasics) do not cause changes in serum lipids and therefore eliminate this putative risk. SN - 0002-9378 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/3674179/Hormonal_contraception:_benefits_versus_risks_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-9378(87)80127-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -