Current advances in neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease.Neurol Sci. 2023 Jun; 44(6):1881-1889.NS
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a rare but probably underdiagnosed neurodegenerative disorder due to pathogenic GGC expansions in the NOTCH2NLC gene. In this review, we summarize recent developments in the inheritance features, pathogenesis, and histopathologic and radiologic features of NIID that subvert the previous perceptions of NIID. GGC repeat sizes determine the age of onset and clinical phenotypes of NIID patients. Anticipation may be absent in NIID but paternal bias is observed in NIID pedigrees. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions in skin tissues once considered pathological hallmarks of NIID can also present in other GGC repeat diseases. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintensity along the corticomedullary junction once considered the imaging hallmark of NIID can frequently be absent in muscle weakness and parkinsonism phenotype of NIID. Besides, DWI abnormalities can appear years after the onset of predominant symptoms and may even disappear completely with disease progression. Moreover, continuous reports of NOTCH2NLC GGC expansions in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases lead to the proposal of a new concept of NOTCH2NLC-related GGC repeat expansion disorders (NRED). However, by reviewing the previous literature, we point out the limitations of these studies and provide evidence that these patients are actually suffering from neurodegenerative phenotypes of NIID.