Determination of polymyxin B in human plasma and epithelial lining fluid using LC-MS/MS and its clinical application in therapeutic drug monitoring.J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2023 Apr 01; 227:115291.JP
Polymyxin B (PB) is currently one of the last resort treatment options against carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) guided therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antibiotics is critical for optimizing dosage regimens to maximize efficacy, minimize toxicity, and delay the emergence of resistance. Currently, methods for determining PB in human plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) are limited. In this study, we developed and validated a simple method for PB determination in human plasma and ELF using LC-MS/MS. Protein precipitation of the sample was conducted with 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile. Polymyxin B1 and B2 were separated on a C18 column and detected within 4 min by the mass spectrometer in the positive mode coupled with multiple reaction monitoring. The calibration curve range was 0.156-10.0 and 0.0156-1.00 μg/mL in the plasma for polymyxin B1 and B2, respectively, and was 0.0625-2.00 and 0.00625-0.200 μg/mL for polymyxin B1 and B2, respectively in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The accuracy of the intra- and inter-assay studies ranged from 80.6% to 114.9%, and the coefficients of variation for intra- and inter-day assays were less than 14.8%. Among a considerable number of patients, the average steady-state plasma concentration of PB was suboptimal. Moreover, the exposure to PB in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) was considerably higher than that in patients without AKI. Meanwhile, a higher concentration of PB in ELF could be achieved than that in plasma after PB nebulization treatment. The established method was proven to be rapid, simple, and suitable for TDM of PB and PK/PD studies in human plasma and ELF.