Associations of Dietary Intake with the Intestinal Microbiota and Short-Chain Fatty Acids Among Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes and Overweight or Obesity.J Nutr. 2023 04; 153(4):1178-1188.JN
Diet, a key component of type 1 diabetes (T1D) management, modulates the intestinal microbiota and its metabolically active byproducts-including SCFA-through fermentation of dietary carbohydrates such as fiber. However, the diet-microbiome relationship remains largely unexplored in longstanding T1D.
We evaluated whether increased carbohydrate intake, including fiber, is associated with increased SCFA-producing gut microbes, SCFA, and intestinal microbial diversity among young adults with longstanding T1D and overweight or obesity.
Young adult men and women with T1D for ≥1 y, aged 19-30 y, and BMI of 27.0-39.9 kg/m at baseline provided stool samples at baseline and 3, 6, and 9 mo of a randomized dietary weight loss trial. Diet was assessed by 1-2 24-h recalls. The abundance of SCFA-producing microbes was measured using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. GC-MS measured fecal SCFA (acetate, butyrate, propionate, and total) concentrations. Adjusted and Bonferroni-corrected generalized estimating equations modeled associations of dietary fiber (total, soluble, and pectins) and carbohydrate (available carbohydrate, and fructose) with microbiome-related outcomes. Primary analyses were restricted to data collected before COVID-19 interruptions.
Fiber (total and soluble) and carbohydrates (available and fructose) were positively associated with total SCFA and acetate concentrations (n = 40 participants, 52 visits). Each 10 g/d of total and soluble fiber intake was associated with an additional 8.8 μmol/g (95% CI: 4.5, 12.8 μmol/g; P = 0.006) and 24.0 μmol/g (95% CI: 12.9, 35.1 μmol/g; P = 0.003) of fecal acetate, respectively. Available carbohydrate intake was positively associated with SCFA producers Roseburia and Ruminococcus gnavus. All diet variables except pectin were inversely associated with normalized abundance of Bacteroides and Alistipes. Fructose was inversely associated with Akkermansia abundance.
In young adults with longstanding T1D, fiber and carbohydrate intake were associated positively with fecal SCFA but had variable associations with SCFA-producing gut microbes. Controlled feeding studies should determine whether gut microbes and SCFA can be directly manipulated in T1D.