Genome sequencing of Sitopsis species provides insights into their contribution to the B subgenome of bread wheat.Plant Commun. 2023 07 10; 4(4):100567.PC
Wheat (Triticum aestivum, BBAADD) is an allohexaploid species that originated from two polyploidization events. The progenitors of the A and D subgenomes have been identified as Triticum urartu and Aegilops tauschii, respectively. Current research suggests that Aegilops speltoides is the closest but not the direct ancestor of the B subgenome. However, whether Ae. speltoides has contributed genomically to the wheat B subgenome and which chromosome regions are conserved between Ae. speltoides and the B subgenome remain unclear. Here, we assembled a high-quality reference genome for Ae. speltoides, resequenced 53 accessions from seven species (Aegilops bicornis, Aegilops longissima, Aegilops searsii, Aegilops sharonensis, Ae. speltoides, Aegilops mutica [syn. Amblyopyrum muticum], and Triticum dicoccoides) and revealed their genomic contributions to the wheat B subgenome. Our results showed that centromeric regions were particularly conserved between Aegilops and Triticum and revealed 0.17 Gb of conserved blocks between Ae. speltoides and the B subgenome. We classified five groups of conserved and non-conserved genes between Aegilops and Triticum, revealing their biological characteristics, differentiation in gene expression patterns, and collinear relationships between Ae. speltoides and the wheat B subgenome. We also identified gene families that expanded in Ae. speltoides during its evolution and 789 genes specific to Ae. speltoides. These genes can serve as genetic resources for improvement of adaptability to biotic and abiotic stress. The newly constructed reference genome and large-scale resequencing data for Sitopsis species will provide a valuable genomic resource for wheat genetic improvement and genomic studies.