Oxidation of Pharmaceuticals by Ferrate(VI)-Amino Acid Systems: Enhancement by Proline.J Phys Chem A. 2023 Mar 16; 127(10):2314-2321.JP
The occurrence of micropollutants in water threatens public health and ecology. Removal of micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals by a green oxidant, ferrate(VI) (FeVIO42-, Fe(VI)) can be accomplished. However, electron-deficient pharmaceuticals, such as carbamazepine (CBZ) showed a low removal rate by Fe(VI). This work investigates the activation of Fe(VI) by adding nine amino acids (AA) of different functionalities to accelerate the removal of CBZ in water under mild alkaline conditions. Among the studied amino acids, proline, a cyclic AA, had the highest removal of CBZ. The accelerated effect of proline was ascribed by demonstrating the involvement of highly reactive intermediate Fe(V) species, generated by one-electron transfer by the reaction of Fe(VI) with proline (i.e., Fe(VI) + proline → Fe(V) + proline•). The degradation kinetics of CBZ by a Fe(VI)-proline system was interpreted by kinetic modeling of the reactions involved that estimated the rate of the reaction of Fe(V) with CBZ as (1.03 ± 0.21) × 106 M-1 s-1, which was several orders of magnitude greater than that of Fe(VI) of 2.25 M-1 s-1. Overall, natural compounds such as amino acids may be applied to increase the removal efficiency of recalcitrant micropollutants by Fe(VI).