Assessing acceptability of the fourth dose against COVID-19 among Chinese adults: A population-based survey.Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2023 12 31; 19(1):2186108.HV
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has wreaked havoc across the globe for approximately three years. Vaccination is a key factor to ending this pandemic, but its protective effect diminishes over time. A second booster dose at the right time is needed. To explore the willingness to receive the fourth dose of the COVID-19 vaccine and its influencing factors, we commenced a national, cross-sectional and anonymous survey in mainland China among people aged 18 and above from October 24 to November 7, 2022. A total of 3,224 respondents were eventually included. The acceptance rate of the fourth dose was 81.1% (95% CI: 79.8-82.5%), while it was 72.6% (95% CI: 71.1-74.2%) for a heterologous booster. Confidence in current domestic situation and the effectiveness of previous vaccinations, and uncertainty about extra protection were the main reasons for vaccine hesitancy. Perceived benefit (aOR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.159-1.40) and cues to action (aOR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.60-1.88) were positively associated with the vaccine acceptance, whereas perceived barriers (aOR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.72-0.84) and self-efficacy (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.71-0.89) were both negatively associated with it. Additionally, sex, age, COVID-19 vaccination history, time for social media, and satisfaction with the government's response to COVID-19 were also factors affecting vaccination intention. Factors influencing the intention of heterologous booster were similar to the above results. It is of profound theoretical and practical significance to clarify the population's willingness to vaccinate in advance and explore the relevant influencing factors for the subsequent development and promotion of the fourth-dose vaccination strategies.