Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance sequence and CA125/CEA ratio can be used as add-on tools to ultrasound for the differentiation of ovarian from non-ovarian pelvic masses.PLoS One. 2023; 18(3):e0283212.Plos
To provide a straightforward approach to the sequential use of ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance (MR) and serum biomarkers in order to differentiate the origin of pelvic masses, making the most efficient use of these diagnostic resources.
This is a cross-sectional study with 159 patients (133 with ovarian and 26 with non-ovarian tumors) who underwent surgery/biopsy for an adnexal mass. Preoperative CA125 and CEA serum measurements were obtained and a pelvic/abdominal ultrasound was performed. Preoperative pelvic MR studies were performed for all patients. Morphological and advanced MR sequences were obtained. Using a recursive partitioning algorithm to predict tumor origin, we devised a roadmap to determine the probability of non-ovarian origin using only statistically significant US, laboratory and MR parameters.
Upfront US classification as ovarian versus non-ovarian and CA125/CEA ratio were significantly associated with non-ovarian tumors. Signal diffusion (absent/low versus high) was the only MR parameter significantly associated with non-ovarian tumors. When upfront US designated a tumor as being of ovarian origin, further MR signal diffusion and CA125/CEA ratio were corrected nearly all US errors: patients with MR signal diffusion low/absent and those with signal high but CA125/CEA ratio ≥25 had an extremely low chance (<1%) of being of non-ovarian origin. However, for women whose ovarian tumors were incorrectly rendered as non-ovarian by upfront US, neither MR nor CA125/CEA ratio were able to determine tumor origin precisely.
MR signal diffusion is an extremely useful MR parameter to help determine adnexal mass origin when US and laboratory findings are inconclusive.