Toxicity interactions of azole fungicide mixtures on Chlorella pyrenoidosa.Environ Toxicol. 2023 Jul; 38(7):1509-1519.ET
It is acknowledged that azole fungicides may release into the environment and pose potential toxic risks. The combined toxicity interactions of azole fungicide mixtures, however, are still not fully understood. The combined toxicities and its toxic interactions of 225 binary mixtures and 126 multi-component mixtures on Chlorella pyrenoidosa were performed in this study. The results demonstrated that the negative logarithm 50% effect concentration (pEC50) of 10 azole fungicides to Chlorella pyrenoidosa at 96 h ranged from 4.23 (triadimefon) to 7.22 (ketoconazole), while the pEC50 values of the 351 mixtures ranged from 3.91 to 7.44. The high toxicities were found for the mixtures containing epoxiconazole. According to the results of the model deviation ratio (MDR) calculated from the concentration addition (MDRCA), 243 out of 351 (69.23%) mixtures presented additive effect at the 10% effect, while the 23.08% and 7.69% of mixtures presented synergistic and antagonistic effects, respectively. At the 30% effect, 47.29%, 29.34%, and 23.36% of mixtures presented additive effects, synergism, and antagonism, respectively. At the 50% effect, 44.16%, 34.76%, and 21.08% of mixtures presented additive effects, synergism, and antagonism, respectively. Thus, the toxicity interactions at low concentration (10% effect) were dominated by additive effect (69.23%), whereas 55.84% of mixtures induced synergism and antagonism at high concentration (50% effect). Climbazole and imazalil were the most frequency of components presented in the additive mixtures. Epoxiconazole was the key component induced the synergistic effects, while clotrimazole was the key component in the antagonistic mixtures.