Application of Antipsychotic Drugs in Mood Disorders.Brain Sci. 2023 Feb 27; 13(3)BS
Since their first application in psychiatry seventy years ago, antipsychotic drugs, besides schizophrenia, have been widely used in the treatment of mood disorders. Such an application of antipsychotics is the subject of this narrative review. Antipsychotic drugs can be arbitrarily classified into three generations. First-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), such as phenothiazines and haloperidol, were mainly applied for the treatment of acute mania, as well as psychotic depression when combined with antidepressants. The second-generation, so-called atypical antipsychotics (SGAs), such as clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine, have antimanic activity and are also effective for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Additionally, quetiapine exerts therapeutic action in bipolar depression. Third-generation antipsychotics (TGAs) started with aripiprazole, a partial dopamine D2 receptor agonist, followed by brexpiprazole, lurasidone, cariprazine, and lumateperone. Out of these drugs, aripiprazole and cariprazine have antimanic activity, lurasidone, cariprazine, and lumateperone exert a significant antidepressant effect on bipolar depression, while there is evidence for the efficacy of aripiprazole and lurasidone in the prevention of recurrence in bipolar disorder. Therefore, successive generations of antipsychotic drugs present a diverse spectrum for application in mood disorders. Such a pharmacological overlap in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar illness stands in contrast to the dichotomous Kraepelinian division of schizophrenia and mood disorders.