Discrimination of Olive Oil and Extra-Virgin Olive Oil from Other Vegetable Oils by Targeted and Untargeted HRMS Profiling of Phenolic and Triterpenic Compounds Combined with Chemometrics.Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Mar 10; 24(6)IJ
Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) and virgin olive oil (VOO) are valuable natural products of great economic interest for their producing countries, and therefore, it is necessary to establish methods capable of proving the authenticity of these oils on the market. This work presents a methodology for the discrimination of olive oil and extra-virgin olive oil from other vegetable oils based on targeted and untargeted high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) profiling of phenolic and triterpenic compounds coupled with multivariate statistical analysis of the data. Some phenolic compounds (cinnamic acid, coumaric acids, apigenin, pinocembrin, hydroxytyrosol and maslinic acid), secoiridoids (elenolic acid, ligstroside and oleocanthal) and lignans (pinoresinol and hydroxy and acetoxy derivatives) could be olive oil biomarkers, whereby these compounds are quantified in higher amounts in EVOO compared to other vegetable oils. The principal component analysis (PCA) performed based on the targeted compounds from the oil samples confirmed that cinnamic acid, coumaric acids, apigenin, pinocembrin, hydroxytyrosol and maslinic acid could be considered as tracers for olive oils authentication. The heat map profiles based on the untargeted HRMS data indicate a clear discrimination of the olive oils from the other vegetable oils. The proposed methodology could be extended to the authentication and classification of EVOOs depending on the variety, geographical origin, or adulteration practices.