Macrophyte-Based Assessment of Upland Rivers: Bioindicators and Biomonitors.Plants (Basel). 2023 Mar 19; 12(6)P
For the first time, a macrophyte-based assessment of ecological status was related to the accumulated heavy metals and trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in aquatic plants. Three moss and two vascular plant species were applied as biomonitors: Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw., Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw.) Warnst., Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw.) Dixon, invasive Elodea canadensis Michx., and Myriophyllum spicatum L. Three streams were assessed as good at a high ecological status which correlated with low contamination based on calculated contamination factors (CFs) and metal pollution index (MPI). Two sites evaluated in moderate ecological status were revealed to be in heavy trace element contamination. The most significant was the accumulation of moss samples from the Chepelarska River under mining impact. Mercury exceeded the environmental quality standard (EQS) for biota in three of the studied upland river sites.