Neurological manifestations of scrub typhus: encephalitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS).BMJ Case Rep. 2023 Mar 29; 16(3)BC
Scrub typhus is a tropical febrile illness that mainly affects rural populations in tropical and subtropical countries. It can range in severity from a mild febrile illness to multisystem involvement. Systemic dysfunction often appears in the second week of sickness, and hepatic, renal and brain involvement are well documented. Although encephalitis is the most frequent neurological ailment, a wide range of unusual complications involving the central and peripheral nervous systems have been identified-however, concomitant multiaxial involvement of the central and peripheral nervous systems is unique. We report a case of a young man with serologically confirmed scrub typhus presenting with fever, eschar, altered sensorium and progressive quadriplegia with hyporeflexic deep tendon reflexes. MRI revealed changes suggestive of encephalitis, and there was evidence of axonopathy on nerve conduction studies. A diagnosis of scrub typhus encephalitis with concomitant Guillain-Barré syndrome was made. He received doxycycline and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, in addition to supportive treatment.