Effects of load increase on lower extremity kinetic and kinematic variables in the back squat exercise.Technol Health Care. 2023; 31(S1):247-258.TH
Squats are one of the most widely used weight training methods worldwide, and the single most ubiquitous with regard to multi-joint resistance training.
The objective of the present study was to investigate kinematic and kinetic changes in the lower extremities as a result of load increases during a back squat exercise, and to propose an association between back squats and lower extremity injuries.
Eight individuals with experience of back squat training were recruited. The subjects performed back squats with loads of 25%, 50%, 100%, and 125% of their body weight. During the performance, the center of pressure (COP) sway; vertical center of mass (COM) velocity; joint moment; joint range of motion (ROM) of flexion/extension and adduction/abduction; and rotation of the ankle, knee, and hip joints were measured.
The participants' lower extremity joint ROM, vertical COM velocity, and COP variability did not change significantly with changes in weight loading. However, the moments applied to the lower extremity joints differed according to changes in barbell weight. The moments of plantar flexion (f= 54.362, p< 0.001), dorsiflexion (f= 8.475, p< 0.001), knee flexion (f= 12.013, p< 0.001), knee extension (f= 8.581, p< 0.001), hip flexion (f= 5.111, p< 0.001), and hip extension (f= 11.053, p< 0.001) increased in the sagittal plane (flexion/extension). There was also a significant increase in ankle eversion (f= 5.612, p= 0.004), hip abduction (f= 3.242, p= 0.037), and adduction (f= 5.846, p= 0.003) in the frontal plane (adduction/abduction). Among the moment variables in the transverse plane (rotation), there were significant differences in ankle internal rotation (f= 7.043, p= 0.001) and hip external rotation (f= 11.070, p< 0.001).
As the barbell load increased, posture and performance were maintained, but rotational moments of the joints differed. It is expected that the joint directions that showed significant differences in this study are likely to be vulnerable to the risk of injury when an excessive load is applied to the body. Examples include the hip adduction moment, hip external rotation moment, and ankle internal rotation moment, and apply regardless of the increase in the rotational moments of joints from load increases.