[Complications of nephrotic syndrome with special reference to thromboembolic accidents].Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1979 Feb 10; 109(6):200-9.SM
The nephrotic syndrome may be associated with several complications caused by severe proteinuria. The consequences of severe renal protein loss are disturbances of water and electrolyte metabolism, thromboses and thromboembolic complications, hyperlipidemia with accelerated atherosclerosis and, finally, some other complications due to the decreased oncotic pressure and the renal loss of transport globulins and immunoglobulins. Diagnosis and treatment of these complications are important in the management of patients with nephrotic syndrome. In the present study, the frequency and localization of thromboses and thromboembolic complications in 11 patients with nephrotic syndrome are described. In addition, factors which are known to be responsible for the hypercoagulable state in nephrotic syndrome were evaluated and correlated to the thromboembolic complications in these patients. An important finding was that in all patients with thromboses and thromboembolic complications, the serum albumin concentrations were below 2 g/100 ml, whereas, with one exception, serum albumin levels were above 2 g/100 ml in cases without thromboembolic complications. Our results indicate that serum albumin levels may be used as an indirect parameter to assess the risk of thromboembolic complications in patients with nephrotic syndrome.