A comprehensive study of clinicopathological and genetic features of neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease.Neurol Sci. 2023 Oct; 44(10):3545-3556.NS
The discovery of skin intranuclear inclusions and GGC repeat expansion of NOTCH2NLC has greatly promoted the diagnosis of neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID). With highly heterogeneous clinical manifestations, NIID patients tend to be underdiagnosed at early stages.
This study comprehensively studied clinical manifestations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and peripheral nerve conduction in 24 NIID and 166 other neurodegenerative disease (ND) subjects. The nomogram was plotted using the "rms" package, and the t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding algorithm was performed. Associations between skin intranuclear inclusions and NOTCH2NLC GGC repeats were further analyzed.
The clinical, MRI, and peripheral nerve conduction features seriously overlapped in NIID and ND patients; they were assigned variables according to their frequency and specificity in NIID patients. A nomogram that could distinguish NIID from ND was constructed according to the assigned variables and cutoff values of the above features. The occurrence of skin intranuclear inclusions and NOTCH2NLC GGC repeats ≥ 60 showed 100% consistency, and intranuclear inclusion frequency positively correlated with NOTCH2NLC GGC repeats. A hierarchical diagnostic flowchart for definite NIID was further established.
We provide a novel nomogram with the potential to realize early identification and update the diagnostic flowchart for definitive diagnosis. Moreover, this is the first study to define the association between skin pathology and NOTCH2NLC genetics in NIID.