Cross-linked CMC/Gelatin bio-nanocomposite films with organoclay, red cabbage anthocyanins and pistacia leaves extract as active intelligent food packaging: colorimetric pH indication, antimicrobial/antioxidant properties, and shrimp spoilage tests.Int J Biol Macromol. 2023 Jul 01; 242(Pt 3):124964.IJ
Multifunctional food packaging films were produced from crosslinked carboxymethyl cellulose/gelatin (CMC/Ge) bio-nanocomposites incorporated with Ge-montmorillonite (OM) nanofiller, anthocyanins (ATH) from red cabbage as colorimetric pH-indicator, and pistacia leaves extract (PE) as active agent. The influence of additives on the structural, physical, and functional properties of the films was investigated. The results showed that ATH and PE caused color alteration and reduced transparency. However, they improved the UV light barrier ability by 98 %, with less impact from OM, despite its well-dispersed state in the matrix. Increasing PE content in the bio-nanocomposite films caused an increase in compactness and surface roughness, reduction in moisture content (15.10-12.33 %), swelling index (354.55-264.58 %), surface wettability (contact angle 80.1-92.49°), water vapor permeability (7.37-5.69 × 10 g m[-1]s[-1]Pa[-1]), and nano-indentation mechanical parameters, without affecting the thermal stability. ATH-included films demonstrated color pH-sensitivity with improved ATH color stability through the ATH-Al[3+] chelates formation. PE-added films exhibited effective antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, reaching 93 % of inhibition, and antimicrobial properties with biocidal effects for PE-rich film. The shrimp spoilage test showed that the T-1.5PE film offered the strongest active intelligent response. The CMC/Ge-based bio-nanocomposite films endowed with antioxidant/antimicrobial properties and colorimetric pH-sensitivity have promising potential for food packaging application.