Dynamic Trends and Underlying Factors of COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Hesitancy in Adults: Cross-Sectional Observational Study.JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2023 08 01; 9:e44822.JP
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy reduces vaccination rates, which is detrimental to building herd immunity and halting the spread of COVID-19 and its variations. Most researches have simply identified the reasons affecting COVID-19 vaccination reluctance without delving into its dynamics, which makes forecasting future trends difficult.
This study aimed to examine the current COVID-19 vaccine booster hesitancy rate in Chinese adults as well as the dynamics of vaccine hesitancy and its influencing factors. The results of this study will have practical implications for policy responses in mainland China, and effective COVID-19 booster vaccination in specific populations.
The web-based survey was completed by creating questionnaires and using a stratified random sampling method to collect information from adults (≥18 years old) among 2556 households in 4 geographical regions of China. We collected sociodemographic information, health status, awareness of COVID-19 and its vaccine, self-perceptions, trust in medical staff and vaccine developers, and so on. The odds ratios and 95% CI for the statistical associations were estimated using logistic regression models.
Overall, 6659 participants (females: n=3540, 53.2%; males: n=3119, 46.8%) responded. In total, 533 (8%; 95% CI 7.4%-8.7%) participants presented a clear hesitancy in receiving the COVID-19 booster vaccination, while 736 (11.1%; 95% CI 10.3%-11.8%) expressed hesitancy in regular booster vaccination. A higher prevalence of vaccine hesitancy in both booster vaccination and regular booster vaccination was observed among participants with a history of allergies, experiencing chronic disease, lower levels of public health prevention measures or susceptibility or benefits or self-efficiency, higher levels of severity or barriers, and lower trust in both medical staff and vaccine developers (P<.05). The females and participants with higher education levels, higher levels of barriers, lower levels of susceptibility, and lower trust in vaccine developers preferred to have attitudinal changes from acceptance to hesitancy, while people with higher education levels, lower self-report health conditions, experiencing chronic disease, history of allergies, and lower trust in medical staff and developers were all positively associated with constant COVID-19 booster hesitancy.
The prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine booster hesitancy is not high in mainland China. However, there is a slight increment in hesitancy on regular booster vaccination. Conducting targeted information guidance for people with higher education levels and chronic diseases, as well as improving accessibility to booster vaccination and increasing trust in medical staff and vaccine producers may be highly effective in reducing vaccine hesitancy.