Nipah virus attachment glycoprotein ectodomain delivered by type 5 adenovirus vector elicits broad immune response against NiV and HeV.Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2023; 13:1180344.FC
Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are newly emerging dangerous zoonotic pathogens of the Henipavirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family. NiV and HeV (HNVs) which are transmitted by bats cause acute respiratory disease and fatal encephalitis in humans. To date, as there is a lack of antiviral drugs or effective antiviral therapies, the development of vaccines against those two viruses is of primary importance, and the immunogen design is crucial to the success of vaccines. In this study, the full-length protein (G), the ectodomain (Ge) and the head domain (Gs) of NiV attachment glycoprotein were delivered by the replication-defective type 5 adenovirus vector (Ad5) respectively, and the recombinant Ad5-NiV vaccine candidates (Ad5-NiVG, Ad5-NiVGe and Ad5-NiVGs) were constructed and their immunogenicity were evaluated in mice. The results showed that all the vaccine candidates stimulated specific humoral and cellular immune responses efficiently and rapidly against both NiV and HeV, and the Ad5-NiVGe elicited the strongest immune responses after a single-dose immunization. Furthermore, the potent conserved T-cell epitope DTLYFPAVGFL shared by NiV and HeV was identified in the study, which may provide valid information on the mechanism of HNVs-specific cellular immunity. In summary, this study demonstrates that the Ad5-NiVGe could be a potent vaccine candidate against HNVs by inducing robust humoral and cellular immune responses.