Application of natural fining agents to clarify fruit juices.Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2023 11; 22(6):4190-4216.CR
The consumption of fruit juices has been increasingly growing all over the world. The clarification process is considered as one of the most important stages in fruit juice production, which can provide the products with desired clear visual appearance. Nowadays, the tendency of consumers to use the natural-clarified fruit juices encourages the researchers to allocate much attention on utilization of natural clarifying agents to clarify different fruit juices. This review article has first introduced the most frequent causes of turbidity in fruit juices including polysaccharides (i.e., cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, starch, and pectic substances), proteins and polyphenols (especially tannins) as well as their removal mechanisms. After that, a comprehensive summary of research on natural fining agents, including clay minerals, polysaccharides, proteins, enzymes (free and immobilized forms), and activated carbon is provided with a focus on their application in the juice clarification process. The chemical composition of natural substances, their efficiency on reduction of turbidity-causing compounds and the changes in properties of clarified juices such as turbidity (clarity), total phenolic content, total anthocyanins, viscosity, and sensory evaluation followed by their stability during the storage have been deeply discussed.