Congenital malformations of the external and middle ear: high-resolution CT findings of surgical import.AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1985 Mar; 144(3):501-6.AA
The external auditory canal, middle ear, and bulk of the ossicular chain develop from the first branchial groove, first and second branchial arches, and first pharyngeal pouch. Embryologic development of these structures is complex and only rarely are two anomalies identical. Development of the inner ear structures occurs independently of external ear structures, and concomitant involvement is unusual. This study includes 11 cases of unilateral external auditory canal atresia and two cases of bilateral atresia. Eight cases (four bilateral) of isolated congenital ossicular anomalies are also included. Emphasis is placed on findings of surgical import. All patients were studied with computed tomography only, because it was believed that the bony and soft-tissue detail achieved is superior to that with conventional multidirectional tomography.