Indices of protein metabolism in term infants fed human milk, whey-predominant formula, or cow's milk formula.Pediatrics. 1985 Apr; 75(4):775-84.Ped
Relationships between intakes of amino acids and total nitrogen, and blood indices of protein utilization were studied in 37 term infants fed either human milk, whey-predominant formula, or cow's milk formula as the sole nutritional source for 8 weeks. Biochemical analyses of two-hour fasting blood samples, and intakes calculated using three-day dietary records and direct analyses of milk samples were used to evaluate these relationships. Intakes of total nitrogen were positively correlated with plasma valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and serum urea nitrogen concentrations (r = .46 to .62, P less than .01 to .001). Intakes of the four amino acids whose plasma concentrations were positively correlated with total nitrogen intakes plus four additional amino acids (threonine, tyrosine, histidine, and methionine) were correlated with their respective plasma concentrations (r = .41 to .74, P less than .01 to .001). These relationships have not been previously described in term infants. Compared with values in infants fed human milk, plasma concentrations of valine, phenylalanine, methionine, and serum urea nitrogen were elevated with whey-predominant formula and cow's milk formula feeding. Values for four additional amino acids (threonine, lysine, leucine, and isoleucine) were elevated with whey-predominant formula feeding. Data indicate that altering the whey-to-casein ratio and, thus, the amino acid pattern of formulas will not achieve the desired blood indices characteristic of human milk feeding without a reduction in the total nitrogen content of formulas.