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Management of complications of portal hypertension.
Surg Clin North Am. 1985 Apr; 65(2):231-62.SC

Abstract

The management of portal hypertension focuses on control of its complications, the most important of which is bleeding esophageal varices. Other complications, such as ascites, bleeding intestinal stomas, and hypersplenism, rarely require surgical intervention. Other than medical management, the three basic procedures now available for the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices include decompression of varices with a portosystemic shunt, nonshunting operations that attack directly the esophageal variceal-bearing area, and liver transplantation as the procedure of choice in selected patients. Patients who present with episodes of acute bleeding are usually treated initially with medical therapy including acute sclerotherapy or balloon tamponade techniques when necessary. If the patient fails to respond or if episodes of bleeding recur, further therapy is required. Although selection of therapy remains controversial, it is based on multiple factors. These include the basic pathogenic mechanism of portal hypertension in the individual patient, status of the patient as defined by Child's classification, elective or urgent nature of the operation, hemodynamic stability of the patient at the time of the procedure, site of the block in the portal system, and caliber and anatomic relationship of the vessels available for anastomosis in the portal system. Additional factors include the presence and severity of ascites or encephalopathy, age of the patient, site of bleeding (esophageal or gastric), severity of associated hypersplenism, and techniques and expertise available at a given institution. Shunting procedures achieve the best long-term control of bleeding, but they can precipitate the development of encephalopathy. Nonshunting procedures do not induce encephalopathy, but they are usually associated with a high rate of rebleeding. Also, with the possible exception of sclerotherapy, they are still associated with a high operative mortality rate in alcoholic patients classified as Child's C. Although sclerotherapy controls acute variceal bleeding more successfully than conventional methods, it is not readily applicable in patients with bleeding gastric varices. Also, it has not yet clearly been proved to be an effective method of permanent control of gastroesophageal bleeding and has not been demonstrated to increase survival. The new methods of extensive esophagogastric devascularization (for example, porta-azygos disconnection using the Sugiura procedure) are attractive because of the low late recurrence rate for bleeding without the induction of encephalopathy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

3874438

Citation

Rossi, R L., et al. "Management of Complications of Portal Hypertension." The Surgical Clinics of North America, vol. 65, no. 2, 1985, pp. 231-62.
Rossi RL, Jenkins RL, Nielsen-Whitcomb FF. Management of complications of portal hypertension. Surg Clin North Am. 1985;65(2):231-62.
Rossi, R. L., Jenkins, R. L., & Nielsen-Whitcomb, F. F. (1985). Management of complications of portal hypertension. The Surgical Clinics of North America, 65(2), 231-62.
Rossi RL, Jenkins RL, Nielsen-Whitcomb FF. Management of Complications of Portal Hypertension. Surg Clin North Am. 1985;65(2):231-62. PubMed PMID: 3874438.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Management of complications of portal hypertension. AU - Rossi,R L, AU - Jenkins,R L, AU - Nielsen-Whitcomb,F F, PY - 1985/4/1/pubmed PY - 1985/4/1/medline PY - 1985/4/1/entrez SP - 231 EP - 62 JF - The Surgical clinics of North America JO - Surg Clin North Am VL - 65 IS - 2 N2 - The management of portal hypertension focuses on control of its complications, the most important of which is bleeding esophageal varices. Other complications, such as ascites, bleeding intestinal stomas, and hypersplenism, rarely require surgical intervention. Other than medical management, the three basic procedures now available for the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices include decompression of varices with a portosystemic shunt, nonshunting operations that attack directly the esophageal variceal-bearing area, and liver transplantation as the procedure of choice in selected patients. Patients who present with episodes of acute bleeding are usually treated initially with medical therapy including acute sclerotherapy or balloon tamponade techniques when necessary. If the patient fails to respond or if episodes of bleeding recur, further therapy is required. Although selection of therapy remains controversial, it is based on multiple factors. These include the basic pathogenic mechanism of portal hypertension in the individual patient, status of the patient as defined by Child's classification, elective or urgent nature of the operation, hemodynamic stability of the patient at the time of the procedure, site of the block in the portal system, and caliber and anatomic relationship of the vessels available for anastomosis in the portal system. Additional factors include the presence and severity of ascites or encephalopathy, age of the patient, site of bleeding (esophageal or gastric), severity of associated hypersplenism, and techniques and expertise available at a given institution. Shunting procedures achieve the best long-term control of bleeding, but they can precipitate the development of encephalopathy. Nonshunting procedures do not induce encephalopathy, but they are usually associated with a high rate of rebleeding. Also, with the possible exception of sclerotherapy, they are still associated with a high operative mortality rate in alcoholic patients classified as Child's C. Although sclerotherapy controls acute variceal bleeding more successfully than conventional methods, it is not readily applicable in patients with bleeding gastric varices. Also, it has not yet clearly been proved to be an effective method of permanent control of gastroesophageal bleeding and has not been demonstrated to increase survival. The new methods of extensive esophagogastric devascularization (for example, porta-azygos disconnection using the Sugiura procedure) are attractive because of the low late recurrence rate for bleeding without the induction of encephalopathy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) SN - 0039-6109 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/3874438/Management_of_complications_of_portal_hypertension_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0039-6109(16)43580-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -