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A morphometric analysis of the craniofacial configuration in achondroplasia.

Abstract

Human achondroplasia can be viewed as an experimental model for studying the effects of abnormal endochondral bone formation on the development of the skull as a whole. In this study, lateral cephalograms of 25 adult males and 26 adult females with achondroplasia were converted to a two-dimensional coordinate model of craniofacial morphology and analyzed using 66 linear, angular, and area variables. Lateral cephalograms of 951 normal adults were used for comparison. Two sample t-tests were used to compare achondroplastic cephalograms with normal cephalograms. Multivariate statistical analysis included Hotelling's T2 and discriminant function analysis. Selected variables were graphed as profile patterns in which mean values were expressed as standard deviation units (Z scores) relative to the norm. Finally, Calcomp plots were used for visual inspection and for comparison of the average cephalometric tracings of male and female achondroplastic subjects with normal male and female subjects, respectively. Significant findings in achondroplasia included enlarged calvaria, frontal bossing, large frontal sinuses, occipital prominence, normal anterior cranial base length, strikingly shortened posterior cranial base length, an acute cranial base angle, a short nasal bone that was deformed and depressed, short upper facial height, recessed maxilla, posterior tilt of the nasal floor, and a prognathic mandible that was anteriorly displaced but of normal size with a normal gonial angle and a high coronoid process. The finding of normal anterior cranial base length in achondroplastic subjects was surprising since the cranial base is preformed in cartilage and hypoplasia and shortening would be expected. Since the brain is enlarged in achondroplasia, the expanding frontal lobes may possibly influence the growth of the anterior cranial base, since it is known to follow a neural pattern of growth. Cribriform plate length was strikingly reduced, but anterior sphenoidal length was strikingly increased, compensating for the shortened cribriform plate length and suggesting that growth in the length of the anterior cranial base takes place primarily by adaptation at one site--namely, the sphenoethmoidal synchondrosis. Strikingly short posterior cranial base length was interpreted as resulting from hypoplasia of bone that is preformed in cartilage with possible early closure of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis. The exaggerated closure of the cranial base angle in achondroplasia may be related to an increased brain size and possibly earlier than normal closure of the intersphenoidal synchondrosis.(

ABSTRACT

TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

3877092

Citation

Cohen, M M., et al. "A Morphometric Analysis of the Craniofacial Configuration in Achondroplasia." Journal of Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology. Supplement, vol. 1, 1985, pp. 139-65.
Cohen MM, Walker GF, Phillips C. A morphometric analysis of the craniofacial configuration in achondroplasia. J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol Suppl. 1985;1:139-65.
Cohen, M. M., Walker, G. F., & Phillips, C. (1985). A morphometric analysis of the craniofacial configuration in achondroplasia. Journal of Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology. Supplement, 1, 139-65.
Cohen MM, Walker GF, Phillips C. A Morphometric Analysis of the Craniofacial Configuration in Achondroplasia. J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol Suppl. 1985;1:139-65. PubMed PMID: 3877092.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A morphometric analysis of the craniofacial configuration in achondroplasia. AU - Cohen,M M,Jr AU - Walker,G F, AU - Phillips,C, PY - 1985/1/1/pubmed PY - 2001/3/28/medline PY - 1985/1/1/entrez SP - 139 EP - 65 JF - Journal of craniofacial genetics and developmental biology. Supplement JO - J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol Suppl VL - 1 N2 - Human achondroplasia can be viewed as an experimental model for studying the effects of abnormal endochondral bone formation on the development of the skull as a whole. In this study, lateral cephalograms of 25 adult males and 26 adult females with achondroplasia were converted to a two-dimensional coordinate model of craniofacial morphology and analyzed using 66 linear, angular, and area variables. Lateral cephalograms of 951 normal adults were used for comparison. Two sample t-tests were used to compare achondroplastic cephalograms with normal cephalograms. Multivariate statistical analysis included Hotelling's T2 and discriminant function analysis. Selected variables were graphed as profile patterns in which mean values were expressed as standard deviation units (Z scores) relative to the norm. Finally, Calcomp plots were used for visual inspection and for comparison of the average cephalometric tracings of male and female achondroplastic subjects with normal male and female subjects, respectively. Significant findings in achondroplasia included enlarged calvaria, frontal bossing, large frontal sinuses, occipital prominence, normal anterior cranial base length, strikingly shortened posterior cranial base length, an acute cranial base angle, a short nasal bone that was deformed and depressed, short upper facial height, recessed maxilla, posterior tilt of the nasal floor, and a prognathic mandible that was anteriorly displaced but of normal size with a normal gonial angle and a high coronoid process. The finding of normal anterior cranial base length in achondroplastic subjects was surprising since the cranial base is preformed in cartilage and hypoplasia and shortening would be expected. Since the brain is enlarged in achondroplasia, the expanding frontal lobes may possibly influence the growth of the anterior cranial base, since it is known to follow a neural pattern of growth. Cribriform plate length was strikingly reduced, but anterior sphenoidal length was strikingly increased, compensating for the shortened cribriform plate length and suggesting that growth in the length of the anterior cranial base takes place primarily by adaptation at one site--namely, the sphenoethmoidal synchondrosis. Strikingly short posterior cranial base length was interpreted as resulting from hypoplasia of bone that is preformed in cartilage with possible early closure of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis. The exaggerated closure of the cranial base angle in achondroplasia may be related to an increased brain size and possibly earlier than normal closure of the intersphenoidal synchondrosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) SN - 0890-6661 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/3877092/A_morphometric_analysis_of_the_craniofacial_configuration_in_achondroplasia_ L2 - http://www.diseaseinfosearch.org/result/113 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -