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Clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency.

Abstract

The essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized in the early 1960s. The causes of zinc deficiency include malnutrition, alcoholism, malabsorption, extensive burns, chronic debilitating disorders, chronic renal diseases, following uses of certain drugs such as penicillamine for Wilson's disease and diuretics in some cases, and genetic disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica and sickle cell disease. In pregnancy and during periods of growth the requirement of zinc is increased. The clinical manifestations in severe cases of zinc deficiency include bullous-pustular dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhea, emotional disorder, weight loss, intercurrent infections, hypogonadism in males; it is fatal if unrecognized and untreated. A moderate deficiency of zinc is characterized by growth retardation and delayed puberty in adolescents, hypogonadism in males, rough skin, poor appetite, mental lethargy, delayed wound healing, taste abnormalities, and abnormal dark adaptation. In mild cases of zinc deficiency in human subjects, we have observed oligospermia, slight weight loss, and hyperammonemia. Zinc is a growth factor. Its deficiency adversely affects growth in many animal species and humans. Inasmuch as zinc is needed for protein and DNA synthesis and for cell division, it is believed that the growth effect of zinc is related to its effect on protein synthesis. Whether or not zinc is required for the metabolism of somatomedin needs to be investigated in the future. Testicular functions are affected adversely as a result of zinc deficiency in both humans and experimental animals. This effect of zinc is at the end organ level; the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is intact in zinc-deficient subjects. Inasmuch as zinc is intimately involved in cell division, its deficiency may adversely affect testicular size and thus affect its functions. Zinc is required for the functions of several enzymes and whether or not it has an enzymatic role in steroidogenesis is not known at present. Thymopoeitin, a hormone needed for T-cell maturation, has also been shown to be zinc dependent. Zinc deficiency affects T-cell functions and chemotaxis adversely. Disorders of cell-mediated immune functions are commonly observed in patients with zinc deficiency. Zinc is beneficial for wound healing in zinc-deficient subjects. In certain zinc-deficient subjects, abnormal taste and abnormal dark adaptation have been noted to reverse with zinc supplementation.

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    Source

    Annual review of nutrition 5: 1985 pg 341-63

    MeSH

    Acrodermatitis
    Alcoholism
    Anemia, Sickle Cell
    Burns
    Deficiency Diseases
    Diet
    Endocrine System Diseases
    Female
    Gastrointestinal Diseases
    Gonads
    Growth Disorders
    Humans
    Iatrogenic Disease
    Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
    Kidney Diseases
    Liver Diseases
    Male
    Neoplasms
    Nervous System Diseases
    Pregnancy
    Sensation
    Skin Diseases
    Wound Healing
    Zinc

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    3896271

    Citation

    Prasad, A S.. "Clinical Manifestations of Zinc Deficiency." Annual Review of Nutrition, vol. 5, 1985, pp. 341-63.
    Prasad AS. Clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency. Annu Rev Nutr. 1985;5:341-63.
    Prasad, A. S. (1985). Clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency. Annual Review of Nutrition, 5, pp. 341-63.
    Prasad AS. Clinical Manifestations of Zinc Deficiency. Annu Rev Nutr. 1985;5:341-63. PubMed PMID: 3896271.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency. A1 - Prasad,A S, PY - 1985/1/1/pubmed PY - 1985/1/1/medline PY - 1985/1/1/entrez SP - 341 EP - 63 JF - Annual review of nutrition JO - Annu. Rev. Nutr. VL - 5 N2 - The essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized in the early 1960s. The causes of zinc deficiency include malnutrition, alcoholism, malabsorption, extensive burns, chronic debilitating disorders, chronic renal diseases, following uses of certain drugs such as penicillamine for Wilson's disease and diuretics in some cases, and genetic disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica and sickle cell disease. In pregnancy and during periods of growth the requirement of zinc is increased. The clinical manifestations in severe cases of zinc deficiency include bullous-pustular dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhea, emotional disorder, weight loss, intercurrent infections, hypogonadism in males; it is fatal if unrecognized and untreated. A moderate deficiency of zinc is characterized by growth retardation and delayed puberty in adolescents, hypogonadism in males, rough skin, poor appetite, mental lethargy, delayed wound healing, taste abnormalities, and abnormal dark adaptation. In mild cases of zinc deficiency in human subjects, we have observed oligospermia, slight weight loss, and hyperammonemia. Zinc is a growth factor. Its deficiency adversely affects growth in many animal species and humans. Inasmuch as zinc is needed for protein and DNA synthesis and for cell division, it is believed that the growth effect of zinc is related to its effect on protein synthesis. Whether or not zinc is required for the metabolism of somatomedin needs to be investigated in the future. Testicular functions are affected adversely as a result of zinc deficiency in both humans and experimental animals. This effect of zinc is at the end organ level; the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is intact in zinc-deficient subjects. Inasmuch as zinc is intimately involved in cell division, its deficiency may adversely affect testicular size and thus affect its functions. Zinc is required for the functions of several enzymes and whether or not it has an enzymatic role in steroidogenesis is not known at present. Thymopoeitin, a hormone needed for T-cell maturation, has also been shown to be zinc dependent. Zinc deficiency affects T-cell functions and chemotaxis adversely. Disorders of cell-mediated immune functions are commonly observed in patients with zinc deficiency. Zinc is beneficial for wound healing in zinc-deficient subjects. In certain zinc-deficient subjects, abnormal taste and abnormal dark adaptation have been noted to reverse with zinc supplementation. SN - 0199-9885 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/3896271/Clinical_manifestations_of_zinc_deficiency_ L2 - http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.nu.05.070185.002013?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -