Surface ultrastructure of the tegument of Clonorchis sinensis newly excysted juveniles and adult worms.J Parasitol. 1979 Aug; 65(4):579-90.JP
The tegumental structures of newly excysted juveniles and adult worms of Clonorchis sinensis were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. After excystation the juvenile's tegumental surface is characterized by knoblike protuberances and is armed almost entirely with numerous rows of small spines encircling the body. These spines are double- or triple-pointed on the anterior portion of the body and become single-pointed posteriorly. Four types of presumed sensory structures were observed as follow: A) ciliated knoblike papillae and B) nonciliated platelike papillae, both of which are arranged in rougly a bilaterally symmetrical pattern dorsally, ventrally, and laterally; C) rounded swellings of nonciliated papillae on the lips of the ventral and oral suckers, which are characterized in the transmission electron microscope by a rounded dense body in the apical bulb; and D) a sensory receptor with a bulbous projection having the appearance of a modified cilium, which was not found with SEM likely owing to its being enclosed by an extension of the tegument. In full-grown adult worms, the tegumental surface is knobbed or lobulated in various forms without surface spines. The tegumental structures in the adults appear to be clearly differentiated from those in the juveniles. Upraised, buttonlike papillae, each topped by a short cilium, which are similar to the Type A papillae in the juveniles, are distributed thickly around the oral and ventral suckers, and are rather randomly scattered over the remainder of the body. Some nonciliated swollen papillae were found on the lip of the ventral sucker.