Uterine perforation and embedding by intrauterine device: evaluation by US and hysterography.Radiology. 1985 Dec; 157(3):765-70.R
Uterine perforation and deep embedding by an intrauterine device (IUD) require exact determination of its location as a necessary step to safe and effective retrieval. Six cases of uterine perforation and four of embedding by an IUD were studied with ultrasonography (US) and hysterography. While US findings suggested the correct diagnosis of perforation in five of the six cases, hysterography yielded more exact diagnostic information. Deep embedding could only be diagnosed with hysterography. A classification of the types of perforation and an algorithm for diagnosing ectopic IUD are presented. Undue reliance on the sonographic appearance of an IUD in the center of the uterine image may lead to hazardous attempts at transvaginal removal of a device that is partly intramural. In this study, hysterography offered the most precise diagnostic information.