Dietary fat selectively alters transport properties of rat jejunum.J Clin Invest. 1986 Jan; 77(1):279-88.JCI
The influence of dietary fatty acid composition on intestinal active and passive transport function, brush border membrane composition, and morphology was examined in rats. Animals fed a semisynthetic diet high in saturated fatty acids demonstrated enhanced in vitro jejunal uptake of decanoic, dodecanoic, palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid, as well as cholesterol and chenodeoxycholic and taurochenodeoxycholic acid, as compared with uptake in animals fed a semisynthetic diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids but equivalent in total content of fat and other nutrients, or as compared with Purina chow. Feeding the saturated fatty acid diet was also associated with reduced jejunal uptake of a range of concentrations of glucose, enhanced ileal uptake of leucine, unchanged uptake of galactose, and lower uptake of decanol. The semisynthetic diets did not alter brush border membrane protein, sucrase or alkaline phosphatase activities, cholesterol, or total phospholipids, although the percentage of jejunal amine phospholipids was higher than in rats fed chow. The morphologic differences between the jejunum and ileum were abolished in animals fed the high polyunsaturated fatty acid diet; in rats fed the high saturated fatty acid diet, there was reduced mean ileal villus height, width, thickness, surface area, cell size, and villus density, as well as reduced mucosal surface area. The changes in jejunal transport were not correlated with the alterations in morphology, unstirred layer resistance, food intake, or body weight gain. It is proposed that small changes in the percentage of total dietary lipids composed of essential and nonessential fatty acids (without concurrent alterations in dietary total fat, carbohydrate, or protein) influence active and passive intestinal transport processes in the rat.