Nutrient intakes of formula-fed infants and infants fed cow's milk.Pediatrics. 1985 Feb; 75(2):343-51.Ped
Twenty-four-hour dietary intake data from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), 1976-1980, were analyzed to compare nutrient intakes among infants 7 to 12 months of age who were fed mixed diets containing solid foods and either infant formula or cow's milk. Solid foods fed to the infants in both groups were low in iron and linoleic acid, and high in sodium, potassium, and protein, relative to Recommended Dietary Allowances. Infants who were fed cow's milk received lower median intakes of iron (7.8 mg v 14.9 mg), linoleic acid (1.8 g v 6.1 g), and vitamin C (39 mg v 64 mg), and higher median intakes of protein (41 g v 25 g), sodium (1,000 mg v 580 mg), and potassium (1,630 mg v 1,020 mg) than formula-fed infants. Seventy-five percent of the infants fed cow's milk had iron intakes below the Recommended Dietary Allowance; 69% had sodium intakes above the range of estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake. Linoleic acid provided less than 3% of energy intake for 74% of the infants fed cow's milk. Differences in nutrient intakes were due not only to different concentrations of nutrients in each of the milk feedings but also to the different amounts and types of solid foods fed to the two groups of infants.