Choanal atresia and its associated anomalies. Further support for the CHARGE Association.Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1985 Mar; 8(3):237-42.IJ
The finding of choanal atresia warrants careful and prompt consideration of other severe congenital anomalies in the newborn. In a chart review of 41 patients with the diagnosis of choanal atresia, 17 patients (41%) had choanal atresia alone while 24 (59%) had at least one other anomaly. Twenty-four (59%) of all patients had bilateral choanal atresia, and 75% of the patients with at least one other anomaly had bilateral choanal atresia. The following features were found to be associated with bilateral choanal atresia: significant structural heart disease (21%), postnatal growth retardation (36%), psychomotor retardation (19%), sensorineural deafness (21%), velopharyngeal discoordination (15%), micrognathia (12%), blocked tear duct (10%), high-arched palate (15%), and facial asymmetry (7%). Twenty-one other anomalies were described. Coloboma was encountered in 10% of our patients and only 3 patients had all of the features originally described in the CHARGE Association. The non-random association of multiple anomalies suggested by the eponym, CHARGE is discussed, and further data is offered for evaluating the child who presents with choanal atresia.