[Results of a dietary survey in the Calvados. Dietary intake, tobacco and alcohol consumption].Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1985 May; 9(5):422-33.GC
A survey on individual nutritional intake was conducted in a representative sample of 1,975 people in the French province of Calvados using a dietary history method. The energy ration (2,964 kcal/d in males, 2,148 kcal/d in females) was found to exceed the recommended allowances by 150 kcal/d in women and by 300 kcal/d in men, corresponding to alcohol consumption. The trends observed were similar to those seen elsewhere in France and other developed countries: a diet with a high proportion (41-43 p. 100) of lipids and saturated fatty acids (16-18 p. 100) mainly due to reduced consumption of vegetable foods; a high intake of cholesterol (513-422 mg) and a low ration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (3.9-4.5 p. 100) leading to a high risk of vascular diseases, particularly of the coronary arteries. The high intake of alcohol may be responsible for the high incidence of alcohol-related diseases, possibly in association with tobacco. The intake of vitamins and minerals was adequate, with the exception of iron, which was below the recommended allowance for females. In contrast with common belief, the dietary energy intake increased when alcohol consumption increased in both sexes. For tobacco, the energy ration decreased moderately in females only with increasing consumption; no relationship was observed in males.