A comparison between free-weight and isokinetic bench pressing.Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1985 Jun; 17(3):344-53.MS
The purpose of the study was to evaluate selected parameters describing performance characteristics of a free-weight and isokinetic bench press. A secondary purpose was an attempt to clarify the technique requirements essential for a successful lift. Parameters describing the free-weight condition were generated from cinematographic data (150 fps) for five trials each at 90 and 75% of the subject's maximal performance (1RM). Isokinetic data were obtained from an instrumented Cybex Power Bench Press at two speeds corresponding to the average speeds for the free-weight conditions. Despite differences, accommodation appeared to occur for both methods when the lifts were performed maximally. A "sticking region" was defined as the portion of the free-weight activity when the subjects' force application was less than the weight of the bar. No significant difference (P less than 0.05) was observed between the 90% 1RM (26.02%) and 75% 1RM (26.94%) mean relative time values for these regions. For the Cybex device, the percentage of the activity which was isokinetic was longer for the slower speeds of rotation (0.47 rad X s-1 = 70%) and steadily decreased until the movement was only 50% isokinetic at 1.74 rad X s-1. The observed relationships between applied force-time data along with anatomical considerations suggest an ideal technique for the lift.