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The effect of contraceptive steroids on hypothalamic-pituitary function.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977 May 01; 128(1):60-74.AJ

Abstract

A study was performed to obtain additional information about the effects of oral contraceptives on pituitary function. A sequential pituitary stimulation test (SST) was used to study normal control women who then received either a combination pill with 50 mug of ethinyl estradiol or an injectable or oral progestin for three weeks, after which the test was repeated. The same test was also performed on five long-term oral contraceptive users. The SST consists of measurement of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) at frequent intervals after stimulation by hypoglycemia, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone. GH and TSH release following stimulation were unaffected by the use of contraceptive steroids, while PRL release was increased by both the combination pill and the progestin alone. LH and FSH release was decreased in the three short-term and most of the long-term users of the combination pills but was not decreased in two of the long-term users as well as in those receiving the progestin alone. These results indicate that the combination oral contraceptives have a direct effect upon the pituitary gland, causing an increase in prolactin release and a decrease in gonadotropin release. This effect varies among individuals receiving the same formulation and may be related to the development of syndrome of postpill amenorrhea-galactorrhea.

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

403765

Citation

Mishell, D R., et al. "The Effect of Contraceptive Steroids On Hypothalamic-pituitary Function." American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 128, no. 1, 1977, pp. 60-74.
Mishell DR, Kletzky OA, Brenner PF, et al. The effect of contraceptive steroids on hypothalamic-pituitary function. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977;128(1):60-74.
Mishell, D. R., Kletzky, O. A., Brenner, P. F., Roy, S., & Nicoloff, J. (1977). The effect of contraceptive steroids on hypothalamic-pituitary function. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 128(1), 60-74.
Mishell DR, et al. The Effect of Contraceptive Steroids On Hypothalamic-pituitary Function. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977 May 1;128(1):60-74. PubMed PMID: 403765.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The effect of contraceptive steroids on hypothalamic-pituitary function. AU - Mishell,D R,Jr AU - Kletzky,O A, AU - Brenner,P F, AU - Roy,S, AU - Nicoloff,J, PY - 1977/5/1/pubmed PY - 2001/3/28/medline PY - 1977/5/1/entrez KW - Biology KW - Clinical Research KW - Contraception KW - Contraceptive Agents, Estrogen--administraction and dosage KW - Contraceptive Agents, Estrogen--side effects KW - Contraceptive Agents, Female KW - Contraceptive Agents, Progestin--administraction and dosage KW - Contraceptive Agents, Progestin--side effects KW - Contraceptive Agents--administraction and dosage KW - Contraceptive Agents--side effects KW - Endocrine System KW - Ethinyl Estradiol--administraction and dosage KW - Ethinyl Estradiol--side effects KW - Family Planning KW - Follicle Stimulating Hormone--analysis KW - Gonadotropins KW - Gonadotropins, Pituitary KW - Hormones KW - Injectables KW - Luteinizing Hormone--analysis KW - Medroxyprogesterone Acetate--administraction and dosage KW - Medroxyprogesterone Acetate--side effects KW - Mestranol KW - Norethindrone KW - Oral Contraceptives KW - Oral Contraceptives, Combined KW - Physiology KW - Pituitary Hormones--analysis KW - Prolactin--analysis KW - Research Methodology SP - 60 EP - 74 JF - American journal of obstetrics and gynecology JO - Am J Obstet Gynecol VL - 128 IS - 1 N2 - A study was performed to obtain additional information about the effects of oral contraceptives on pituitary function. A sequential pituitary stimulation test (SST) was used to study normal control women who then received either a combination pill with 50 mug of ethinyl estradiol or an injectable or oral progestin for three weeks, after which the test was repeated. The same test was also performed on five long-term oral contraceptive users. The SST consists of measurement of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) at frequent intervals after stimulation by hypoglycemia, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone. GH and TSH release following stimulation were unaffected by the use of contraceptive steroids, while PRL release was increased by both the combination pill and the progestin alone. LH and FSH release was decreased in the three short-term and most of the long-term users of the combination pills but was not decreased in two of the long-term users as well as in those receiving the progestin alone. These results indicate that the combination oral contraceptives have a direct effect upon the pituitary gland, causing an increase in prolactin release and a decrease in gonadotropin release. This effect varies among individuals receiving the same formulation and may be related to the development of syndrome of postpill amenorrhea-galactorrhea. SN - 0002-9378 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/403765/The_effect_of_contraceptive_steroids_on_hypothalamic_pituitary_function_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0002-9378(77)90295-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -