A comparative study of the inhibition of hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenases in the rat by methyltetrazolethiol, calcium carbimide, and disulfiram.Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1985 May; 63(5):438-43.CJ
Methyltetrazolethiol (1-methyl-5-mercapto-1,2,3,4-tetrazole, MTT) is a heterocyclic substituent of the cephalosporin antibiotics, cefamandole, cefoperazone, and moxalactam. Pretreatment of rats with MTT has been reported to increase blood acetaldehyde concentration after ethanol administration. The time course of MTT-induced inhibition of hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) was determined in adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison with the hepatic ALDH inhibition induced by calcium carbimide (calcium cyanamide, CC) and disulfiram (D). The apparent onset of maximal inhibition of hepatic low Km ALDH occurred at 2 h for 50 mg/kg MTT (subcutaneous, s.c.) and 7 mg/kg CC (oral) and at 24 h for 300 mg/kg D (oral). The relative magnitude of maximal inhibition of low Km ALDH was CC greater than D greater than MTT. The relative duration of enzyme inhibition was D greater than MTT greater than CC. High Km ALDH was only inhibited by CC. Hepatic low Km ALDH was selectively inhibited by s.c. and oral administration of 125 mg/kg MTT. For s.c. administration of 125 mg/kg MTT, the magnitude of maximal enzyme inhibition and the duration of inhibition were greater than for the 50 mg/kg dose. Oral administration of 125 mg/kg MTT produced similar inhibition of hepatic low Km ALDH compared with s.c. administration of the same dose. The time course of blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations was determined for the intravenous infusion of two 0.3-g/kg doses of ethanol to rats that were pretreated orally with saline (1 h), MTT (125 mg/kg, 2 h), or CC (7 mg/kg, 1 h). The relative increase in blood acetaldehyde concentration compared with saline pretreatment was CC greater than MTT. The elimination of ethanol from blood was slower in the MTT- and CC-pretreated animals, and this effect was more pronounced for CC pretreatment. Overall, the data demonstrate that the characteristics of hepatic ALDH inhibition for MTT are different from those of the known ALDH inhibitors, CC and D.