The relationship of immediate pigment darkening to minimal erythemal dose, skin type, and eye color.Photodermatol. 1985 Oct; 2(5):288-94.P
Immediate pigment darkening (IPD) was recorded in over 1,300 volunteers participating in routine sun protection factor (SPF) testing. Medical history obtained included skin type, hair color, eye color, sunburn sensitivity, tanning ability, and current medications. The presence of IPD and the energy needed to produce it were recorded immediately following exposure to a filtered 2500 W xenon are solar simulator. Minimal erythemal dose (MED) values were recorded 16-24 hours post-exposure. The average MED was lowest for skin type I and highest for skin type IV. The IPD dose was also lowest for skin type I and highest for skin type IV. However, the average IPD dose was greater than the MED for skin type I and lower than the MED for skin type IV. For skin types II and III, the average IPD dose and MED were almost equivalent. For skin type I, 64% required equivalent or greater energy to produce IPD than their MED, and 30% showed no IPD at energy levels sufficient to produce erythema, whereas all skin type IV's had a measurable IPD response. For volunteers of skin type II and III showing no measurable IPD, the predominant eye color was blue or green (74%). Sunscreen usage altered the IPD response for all 4 skin types.