The development of an artificial beta cell system and its validation in depancreatized dogs: the physiological restoration of blood glucose homeostasis.Med Prog Technol. 1979 Jun 15; 6(3):99-108.MP
An instrument for the control of blood glucose in a closed-loop fashion has been developed. This artificial beta cell consists of 4 subunits: a Glucose Monitor, a Microcomputer, an Insulin Infusion Pump and a Printer. Its internal control algorithm was derived from the modeled dynamics of glucose-induced insulin secretion, and includes the effects of both the proportional and derivative actions of blood glucose concentration, and is expressed as: IIR = Kp . BG + Kd . deltaBG + Kc, where IIR is insulin infusion rate, BG and deltaBG are blood glucose concentration and rate of change in glycemia, respectively. Kp and Kd are individual coefficients and Kc is a constant of basal insulin secretion. The performance of this system was studied with various kinds of glucose challenges on anaesthetized depancreatized dogs. Its notable characteristics were: 1) the insulin infusion rate was such as to maintain physiological insulin levels, and 2) dextrose or glucagon infusions were not required.