The pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. Enzyme profiles and transient and steady-state content of intermediates of alternative pathways of glucose metabolism in Krebs ascites cells.Biochem J. 1969 Dec; 115(5):1009-29.BJ
1. The pentose phosphate pathway in Krebs ascites cells was investigated for regulatory reactions. For comparison, the glycolytic pathway was studied simultaneously. 2. Activities of the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes were low in contrast with those of the enzymes of glycolysis. The K(m) values of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase for both substrate and cofactor were about four times the reported upper limit for the enzyme from normal tissues. Fructose 1,6-diphosphate and NADPH competitively inhibited 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. 3. About 28% of the hexokinase activity was in the particulate fraction of the cells. The soluble enzyme was inhibited by fructose 1,6-diphosphate and ribose 5-phosphate, but not by 3-phosphoglycerate. The behaviour of the partially purified soluble enzyme in vitro in a system simulating the concentrations of ATP, glucose 6-phosphate and P(i) found in vivo is reported. 4. Kinetics of metabolite accumulation during the transient state after the addition of glucose to the cells indicated two phases of glucose phosphorylation, an initial rapid phase followed abruptly by a slow phase extending into the steady state. 5. Of the pentose phosphate pathway intermediates, accumulation of 6-phosphogluconate, sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate paralleled the accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate. Erythrose 4-phosphate reached the steady-state concentration by 2min., whereas the pentose phosphates accumulated linearly. 6. The mass-action ratios of the pentose phosphate pathway reactions were calculated. The transketolase reaction was at equilibrium by 30sec. and then progressively shifted away from equilibrium towards the steady-state ratio. The glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase was far from equilibrium at all times. 7. Investigation of the flux of [(14)C]glucose carbon confirmed the existence of an operative pentose phosphate pathway in ascites cells, contributing 1% of the total flux in control cells and 10% in cells treated with phenazine methosulphate. 8. The pentose phosphate formed by way of the direct oxidative route and estimated from the (14)CO(2) yields represented 20% of the total accumulated pentose phosphate, the other 80% being formed by the non-oxidative reactions of the pentose phosphate pathway. 9. The pentose phosphate pathway appears to function as two separate pathways, both operating towards pentose phosphate formation. Control of the two pathways is discussed.