Coagulopathy in amyloidosis: combined deficiency of factors IX and X.Am J Hematol 1977; 3:225-35AJ
Combined severe deficiencies of blood clotting factors IX and X were observed in 2 patients who suffered from systemic amyloidosis. This unique deficiency state was marked by refractoriness to Vitamin K as well as to transfusion therapy. Increased antithrombin activity was present in both individuals and corresponded in time to the emergence of a monoclonal IgG kappa light chain paraprotein in 1. Both patients demonstrated profound bleeding disorders. It is hypothesized that the Vitamin K dependent factors have special affinity for amyloid deposits due to an unusual amino acid (gamma-carboxyglutamic acid) present in these factors.