The influence of ready-to-eat cereal consumption at breakfast on nutrient intakes of individuals 62 years and older.J Am Coll Nutr. 1984; 3(1):27-44.JA
From 7-day food diaries of a cross-sectional sample of American elderly individuals (n = 561), breakfast consumption patterns were assessed and related to average daily nutrient intake patterns. Results indicated that, in general, breakfast consumption made a significant contribution to the average elderly individual's daily nutrient intake and, in particular, breakfasts containing ready-to-eat cereal had a greater impact on nutrient intake levels than did breakfasts not containing ready-to-eat cereal. More specifically, elderly individuals who had ready-to-eat cereal at breakfast 4-7 times during the week surveyed consumed significantly less (P less than or equal to 0.05) fat and cholesterol and significantly more fiber, carbohydrate, total sugar, protein, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, vitamins B6, B12, and A, iron, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, copper, and zinc at the breakfast meal than those who had no ready-to-eat cereal at breakfast. Fewer statistically significant differences between the two groups were evidenced when vitamin/mineral supplement usage was included in the analysis. Average daily intake levels of frequent consumers of ready-to-eat cereal were significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) greater than those of nonconsumers for all dietary components except protein, fat, cholesterol, vitamin E, and sodium when supplement usage was excluded from the calculations. When supplements were included, significant differences between the two groups decreased to nine dietary components. Comparison of the average nutrient composition of breakfasts containing ready-to-eat cereal and those not containing ready-to-eat cereal revealed those including ready-to-eat cereal contained significantly greater quantities of all nutrients assessed regardless of whether or not vitamin/mineral supplements were included in the calculations.